Diverse excavation strategies respond in part to different preservation conditions, constraints, and objectives in order to record provenience.
From test pit to full-scale excavation, archaeologists maintain records of the three-dimensional provenience of the objects being recovered.
Context matters because information comes from what artifacts are associated with each other, with features, and with particular strata.
It’s not enough to know that an artifact came from a particular site; we need to know how it relates to everything else found at the site.
In the late 1990s, I began concentrating on the use of phylogenetic methods, especially cladistics, in archaeology.
This was extremely controversial, as was the application of evolutionary principles to cultural phenomena generally.
They date an object by calculating the amount of background radiation the object has been subjected to since the object’s electron “clock” was last reset by heat (TL) or sunlight (OSL).On the personal side, I have a wonderful wife, Gloria, five grown kids, and a lazy cat, Marley, who pretty much rules the house.) More or less homogeneous or gradational material, visually separable from other levels by a discrete change in the character of the material—texture, compactness, color, rock, organic content—and/or by a sharp break in the nature of deposition.These techniques can extend back several hundred thousand years.about cultural activities.Radiocarbon dating, for example, tells us when a plant or an animal died—it is up to the archaeologist to relate the event being dated to a behavioral (cultural) event of interest.(p.118): A date expressed as a specific unit of scientific measurement, such as days, years, centuries, or millennia; an absolute determination attempting to pinpoint a discrete, known interval in time.